Terremotos


Cada año se producen alrededor de 50.000 terremotos, cuando las placas tectónicas se deslizan y se reposicionan. Algunos terremotos son devastadores, puesto que liberan una cantidad impresionante de energía. Los científicos, a pesar de contar con datos bastante precisos, no tienen ningún medio para conocer cuándo y dónde se producirán los próximos sismos.         

El aumento considerable de la población urbana que habita en los alrededores de las líneas sísmicas de fallas ya conocidas, aumenta la probabilidad de que las futuras catástrofes sobrepasen las ocurridas en San Francisco o Tokio. No solamente el número de personas en riesgo es hoy día más elevado que nunca, sino que la concentración de la riqueza y de las infraestructuras modernas en ciertas metrópolis podría provocar un terremoto urbano mucho más devastador, en términos económicos, que el ocurrido en Kobé en 1995, que produjo pérdidas económicas de más de 100.000 millones de dólares, lo que hace de él una de las catástrofes naturales más costosas de todos los tiempos.

[Continuar en inglés]

UNESCO supports the development and implementation of quake-resistant building codes, for it is collapsing buildings that kill people, not usually the ground tremors themselves. Time after time, heavy casualties are caused not so much by earthquakes as by shoddy construction, at a time when engineers know how to prevent floors pancaking on top of one another and how to create buildings that can absorb substantial shocks without collapsing.

UNESCO helps to train engineers and scientists and has supported the establishment of international, regional and national centres for the recording, exchange and analysis of seismological data in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Britain, Japan, Peru and Iran. 

Earthquakes also provide scientists with a living laboratory: thus, a considerable amount about the behaviour of earthquakes is known as a result of many post-disaster reconnaissance missions conducted by UNESCO. UNESCO Tehran office is providing advice and simultaneously gaining experience in the reconstruction of the ancient city of Bam and the reduction of similar risks in Iran, one of the countries most exposed to earthquake hazard.

UNESCO and the US Geological Survey have been jointly involved programmes aiming to reduce earthquake losses, creating networks of expertise, stations and institutes. An important feature of such programmes is that it makes it possible for countries which are politically antagonistic to one another to exchange scientific data.

Similar projects have been funded, equipped and staffed with UNESCO’s help. More recently, UNESCO has cooperated with Libya to establish a digital seismological network (LNSN), which is designed to provide high-quality data for research projects in regional and global seismology.

In June 2007, the kickoff meeting to establish a new international platform was held in Japan, in close cooperation with the Building Research Institute (BRI) of Japan, for the purpose of collaborative research, training and education regarding seismology and earthquake engineering.

Centros creados bajo los auspicios de la UNESCO
- Centro Regional de Sismología para América del Sur (CERESIS), Lima
- Instituto de ingeniería de terremoto y sismología, Skopje, Macedonia Más [en inglés]
- Centro Sismológico International, Newbury, Reino Unido (ISC)
- Instituto international de sismología e ingeniería sísmica, Japón (IISEE)
- Instituto Internacional de Ingeniería de terremotos y sísmica, Teherán, Irán Más [en inglés]




  Nuevo - Documentos  

Nuevo - DocumentosEl programa de la UNESCO en respuesta al Terremoto de Islamabad, Pakistan@

[únicamente en inglés]

Building back a better education system & supporting the education system holistically

 
Nuevo - DocumentosAPELL a las amenazas de Terremoto@

[únicamente en inglés]

This brochure is part of a series of brochures published by UNESCO and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to raise public awareness of disasters.

 

  _NEW-Project  

_NEW-ProjectPost-disaster investigations and studies@

Post-disaster reconnaissance missions provide concrete information about disasters and their consequences. This data allows for better preparedness and mitigation strategies, from safer building codes to more effective emergency plans.

 


 


_NEW-ProjectRed nacional de Sismología libia (LNSN)@

[únicamente en inglés]

Lybia is engaged with UNESCO in a multi-dimensional project on earthquake monitoring and research studies entitled "Establishment of the National Seismological Network" (LNSN). This project was developed within the framework of the country's national and regional efforts to assess and mitigate natural disaster risks.


_NEW-ProjectPrograma de respuesta a Terremotos (UNESCO Islamabad)@

[únicamente en inglés]

UNESCO Office Islamabad’s Earthquake Response Programme (ERP) was created in 2005 as an immediate response to the devastating 7.6 magnitude earthquake in Northern Pakistan. ERP tailors interventions to local needs identified in consultation with affected communities and government counterparts, working closely with local authorities and other United Nations organizations and programmes.


_NEW-ProjectPlataforma Internacional para la Reducción de Desastre provocado por un terremoto (IPRED)@

[únicamente en inglés]

This platform of collaborative research, training and education on the Seismology and Earthquake Engineering was established in June 2007, in collaboration with the International Institute of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering (IISEE) and the Building Research Institute ( BIS) of Japan, which acts as the Centre of Excellence project and Enforcement Assistance activities and the maintenance of this platform.


_NEW-ProjectGeohazards: Mitigating the Risks@

Geohazards include earthquakes, volcanic activity, landslides, tsunamis, floods, meteorite impacts and the health hazards of geologic materials. Earth scientists undertake research to better understand these hazards and contribute to risk management policies related to social and technical issues associated with Geohazards as well as disaster mitigation.

:: Website


_NEW-ProjectLa reducción de las pérdidas del terremoto en la Región del Mediterráneo Oriental (RELEMR)@

[únicamente en inglés]

The Mediterranean region, because of its geological structure, seismicity, active tectonics, topography and climate, has been frequently subjected to natural disasters resulting in great losses of life and property. Field studies and investigations of disasters indicate that large portions of the land surface, population, infrastructure, and industry of the region have been subjected to earthquakes in the past or will be subjected to earthquakes in the future.


_NEW-ProjectLa Reducción de pérdidas del terremoto en la región del Asia Meridional (RELSAR)@

[únicamente en inglés]

The Asian region has the highest level of seismicity on the planet; consequently it has suffered from many of the largest earthquakes in history. The high seismic risk in the region was recently highlighted by the September 1999 magnitude 7.4 earthquake in central Taiwan, which caused more than 1,000 deaths and billions of U.S. dollars in damage; and by the 26 January 2001 magnitude 7.5 earthquake in Bhuj, India. The majority of earthquakes in the Asian region originate in areas of plate convergence where one tectonic plate slides beneath another plate (subduction zones). In addition to generating large earthquakes, plate subduction often gives rise to volcanism. However, large earthquakes are not always associated with subduction zones. Faults where horizontal motion takes place (strike-slip faults) also generate devastating earthquakes. Strike-slip faults in China and Mongolia are responsible for numerous destructive earthquakes, often with magnitudes between 6.0 and 7.5 and occasionally greater than 8.0.



© 2008 - UNESCO