United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
The General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, meeting in Nairobi from 26 October to 30 November 1976, at its nineteenth session,

Considering that, by virtue of Article IV, paragraph 4, of the Constitution, it is for the Organization to draw up and adopt instruments for the international regulation of questions falling within its competence,

Considering that Article VIII of the Constitution provides inter alia that “each Member State shall submit to the Organization, at such times and in such manners as shall be determined by the General Conference, reports on . . . statistics relating to its educational, scientific and cultural institutions and activities . . . ,

Convinced that it is highly desirable for the national authorities responsible for collecting and communicating radio and television statistics to be guided by certain standards in the matter of definitions, classifications and presentation, in order to improve the international comparability of such statistics,

Having before it, as item 30 of the agenda of the session, proposals concerning the international standardization of statistics on radio and television,

Having decided at its eighteenth session that this question should be made the subject of an international regulation, to take the form of a recommendation to Member States within the meaning of Article IV, paragraph 4, of the Constitution,

Adopts, this twenty-second day of November 1976, the present recommendation.


The General Conference recommends that Member States should apply the following provisions concerning international standardization of statistics on radio and television by taking whatever legislation measures or other steps may be required, in conformity with the constitutional practice of each State, to give effect, within their respective territories, to the standards and principles formulated in this recommendation.

The General Conference recommends that Member States bring this recommendation to the attention of authorities and services responsible for collecting and communicating radio and television statistics.

The General Conference recommends that Member States forward to it, by the dates and in the form which it shall prescribe, reports concerning action taken by them upon this recommendation.

I. SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS

Scope


1. The statistics referred to in this recommendation are intended to provide, in respect of each Member State, information on a standardized basis about:

(a) domestic broadcasting;

(b) external broadcasting.

Definitions

2. In compiling the statistics covered by this recommendation, the following definitions should be used:

(a) Broadcasting institution: an organization legally authorized to provide a broadcasting service.

(b) Broadcasting service: a radiocommunication service in which the transmissions are intended for direct reception by the general public. This service may include sound transmissions, television transmissions, or other types of transmissions,

(c) Radiocommunication: telecommunication by means of electromagnetic waves of frequencies lower than 3,000 GHz propagated in space without artificial guide.

(d) Telecommunication: any transmission, emission or reception of signs, signals, writing, images and sounds or intelligence of any nature by wire, radio, visual or other electromagnetic systems.

(e) Domestic broadcasting: a broadcasting service primarily intended for general reception within the country in which the broadcasting institution is authorized to operate.

(f) External broadcasting: a broadcasting service primarily intended for reception outside the boundaries of the country in which the broadcasting institution is authorized to operate.

(g) Sound broadcasting (radio): broadcasting of sound only signals.

(h) Television: broadcasting of transient images of fixed or moving objects, with or without sound.

(i) Transmitter: an apparatus producing radio-frequency energy for the purpose of broadcasting radio or television programmes.

(j) Power of a broadcast transmitter: the radio frequency power that the transmitter normally supplies to the aerial system, being the unmodulated carrier power for a sound transmitter, and the power generated during the peaks of the modulation envelope for a television transmitter.

(k) Maximum effective radiated power (Maximum ERP): the product of the power supplied to the aerial and the gain of the aerial relative to a half-wave dipole in the direction of maximum radiation.

(l) Broadcast frequency band: a continuous group of frequencies allocated to broadcasting by international regulations.

(m) Programme: a self-contained item, either with a title or otherwise indicated, broadcast during a pre-announced period.

(n) Broadcasting time: time during which programmes are broadcast by one or more transmitters.

(o) Programme service: a sequence of radio or television programmes broadcast regularly by one or more transmitters and forming a distinct named entity within the broadcasting service of a broadcasting institution.

(p) Sound broadcasting (radio) receiver: a receiver connected to an aerial or other source of radio signals in order to reconstitute in an audible form the elements of a particular sound programme service conveyed by such signals.

(q) Television receiver: a receiver connected to an aerial or other source of radio signals in order to reconstitute in an audible and visual form the elements of a particular television broadcast available to the viewer.

(r) Receiving licence: an authorization or a contract needed, usually in return for payment, to use sound broadcasting (radio) and/or television receivers.

II. CLASSIFICATION OF DATA

3. For the different aspects of domestic broadcasting covered by this recommendation, the following classifications should be used: Broadcasting institutions

4. Broadcasting institutions should be classified:

(a) by their constitutional status:

(i) Government broadcasting institution: a broadcasting institution operated in all respects by a government (central or federal, State, provincial, local, etc. ) either directly or through a separate institution created by it;

(ii) Public service broadcasting institution: a broadcasting institution created or licensed by a legislative act or regulation (central or federal, State, provincial, local, etc. ) and which constitutes an autonomous body;

(iii) Commercial broadcasting institution: a broadcasting institution corporately or privately owned and which is primarily profit oriented.

(b) by their geographical coverage:

(i) National broadcasting institution: a broadcasting institution which provides a broadcasting service intended to cover the country as a whole;

(ii) Regional broadcasting institution: a broadcasting institution which within a country provides a regional broadcasting service;

(iii) Local broadcasting institution: a broadcasting institution which provides a local broadcasting service.

5. Sources of revenue of broadcasting institutions should be classified according to their origin in the following categories:

(a) Government funds: revenue received directly, or indirectly, from normal government funds (central or federal, State, provincial, local, etc. );

(b) Licence fees: revenue from the proceeds of a broadcast receiving licence payable by users;

(c) Private endowments: private funds made available for a broadcasting institution’s use;

(d) Advertising: revenue received in return for the advertiser’s right to draw the audience’s attention to his goods or services;

(e) Other income: revenue from sources other than those defined in (a) to (d) above.

6. Current expenditure of broadcasting institutions should be classified into the following categories:

(a) Programme costs
All real costs directly attributable to planning, production and acquisition of programmes, including personnel costs, but excluding the fixed costs of keeping installations running:

(i) Costs of a broadcasting institution’s own productions;

(ii) Costs incurred in the purchasing of programmes, in co-productions and in the exchange of programmes between broadcasting institutions.

(b) Costs of production, transmission and other facilities
All real costs not directly attributable to programmes:

(i) Costs incurred in the upkeep of production facilities;

(ii) Operating costs of transmission;

(iii) Personnel, management and administration costs.

7. Personnel permanently employed in broadcasting institutions should be classified as follows:

(a) Programme and journalistic staff:

(i) Programme staff: planning, creative-writing and programme-producing personnel, excluding journalists;

(ii) Journalistic staff: personnel engaged in the preparation of news bulletins, etc.

(b) Technical staff:

(i) Technical production staff: personnel employed on the operation and maintenance of the technical equipment necessary for programme production;

(ii) Technical transmission staff: personnel employed on the operation and maintenance of transmitters and links between production centres and transmitters;

(iii) Other technical staff: personnel employed on the design and installation of technical equipment or of buildings; study and research personnel, etc.

(c) Administrative staff: personnel employed on the management or organization of a broadcasting institution and providing central services.

(d) Other staff: personnel other than those defined in (a) to (c) above.

Transmitting facilities

8. Statistics on transmitters should distinguish between sound broadcasting transmitters and television transmitters.

(a) Sound broadcasting transmitters should be classified by frequency band:

LF (Low frequency) also known as the long-wave band;
MF (Medium frequency) also known as the medium-wave band;
HF (High frequency) also known as the short-wave band;
VHF (Very high frequency);
SHF (Super high frequency).
Transmitter power should be specified in terms of carrier power in LF, MF and HF, and Maximum ERP in VHF and SHF.

(b) Television transmitters should be classified by frequency band:

VHF (Very high frequency) Bands 1, 2 and 3;
UHF (Ultra high frequency) Bands 4 and 5;
SHF (Super high frequency).
Maximum ERP should be specified and a distinction made between black and white transmitters and colour transmitters.

Programmes

9. Statistics relating to programme services of domestic broadcasting should be classified as follows:

(a) National programme service: a programme service broadcast nationwide;

(b) Regional programme service: a programme service broadcast to regional audiences normally differentiated by language, ethnic or other cultural differences;

(c) Local programme service: a programme service broadcast to audiences which, geographically, are conveniently grouped, e. g. cities and towns.

10. Statistics relating to programmes should be classified as follows:

(a) By function: a programme characterized by its intended purpose.

(i) Informative programmes: programmes intended primarily to inform about facts, events, theories or forecasts or to provide explanatory background information:

News bulletins and news commentaries (including sports news);
Other informative programmes, e. g. programmes dealing with political, economic, scientific, cultural and social matters, special events, etc.

(ii) Educational, cultural and religious programmes
Educational programmes: programmes intended primarily to educate and in which the pedagogical element is fundamental:

Educational programmes related to a specific curriculum (e. g. schools, university, etc. ); excluding programmes for rural development purposes;
Educational programmes for rural development purposes;
Other educational programmes.
Cultural programmes: programmes intended primarily to stimulate artistic and/or intellectual curiosity: - Programmes which can be regarded as cultural performances or activities in themselves;
Programmes which are intended primarily to enrich the audience’s knowledge in a non-didactic way regarding various spheres and phenomena of culture.
Religious programmes: programmes based on different forms of religious service or similarly inspirational programmes intended to edify the audience.

(iii) Advertisements: commercial or other advertisements in respect of which payment is made.

(iv) Entertainment programmes and unclassified programmes
Entertainment programmes: programmes intended primarily to entertain:

Cinema films;
Programmes produced as plays, whether as single complete programmes or as serials;
Programmes of which the predominant content is music, whether “live” or recorded;
Sports programmes (but excluding sports news);
Other entertainment programmes.
Unclassified programmes: programmes not otherwise classified.

(b) By language of programme:

(i) Programmes broadcast in the official language(s);

(ii) Programmes in dialects of the official language(s);

(iii) Programmes in the languages of ethnic minorities;

(iv) Programmes broadcast in languages other than in (i), (ii) and (iii) above.

(c) By origin of programme:

(i) National production: programmes produced in the country, whether by the broadcasting institutions or otherwise;

(ii) Imported programmes: programmes produced by organizations outside the reporting country;

(iii) International co-production: programmes produced jointly by broadcasting institutions in the country and organizations outside the reporting country.

Listeners and viewers

11. (a) Potential audience: number of people as a percentage of the total population having access to a radio or television receiver, either in their own homes or in a listening group.

(b) Statistics on the estimated number of receivers should be classified as follows:

(i) Sound broadcasting receivers, distinguishing, if possible, between:
VHF receivers with frequency modulation;
LF, MF, HF, VHF and SHF receivers with amplitude modulation; - receivers equipped with both frequency and amplitude modulation.

(ii) Television receivers, distinguishing, if possible, between:
Black and white receivers;
Colour receivers.

(c) Statistics on receiving licences should be classified as follows:

(i) Licences for sound only (radio);

(ii) Licences for television;

(iii) Combined sound only (radio) and television licences.

External broadcasting

12. For the different aspects of external broadcasting covered by this recommendation, the following items should be included:

(a) Number of transmitters and their transmitting power ;

(b) Total annual broadcasting time (in hours) of all languages and by individual languages as a percentage of the total.

III. REPORTING OF STATISTICAL DATA

13. The statistics covered by this recommendation should be drawn up desirably every year, but if this is not possible, every two years and refer to the latter year of the biennial period. The requested information should be presented in conformity with the definitions and classifications set out in paragraphs 2 to 12 above. Attention should be drawn to any differences between these definitions and classifications and those customarily used at the national level. These statistics should be presented separately for radio and television and should as far as possible cover all the following types of data:

Domestic broadcasting

Broadcasting institutions

14. Number of institutions legally authorized

(a) By constitutional status:

(i) Government broadcasting institution;

(ii) Public service broadcasting institution;

(iii) Commercial broadcasting institution.

(b) By geographical coverage:

(i) national broadcasting institution;

(ii) regional broadcasting institution;

(iii) local broadcasting institution.

15. Sources of revenue of broadcasting institutions referred to in paragraph 14(a)

Total annual revenue and as a percentage of that total :

(a) Government funds

(b) Licence fees

(c) Private endowments

(d) Advertising

(d) Other income

16. Current expenditure of broadcasting institutions referred to in paragraph 14(a)

Total annual current expenditure and as a percentage of that total:

(a) Programme costs:

(i) Programme production costs

(ii)Programme purchase costs

(b) Costs of production, transmission and other facilities :

(i) Production facilities costs

(ii) Transmission facilities costs

(iii) Personnel, management and administrative costs

17. Personnel employed in broadcasting institutions referred to in paragraph 14(a)

Total number of staff

(a) Programme staff:

(i) Programme staff excluding journalists

(ii) Journalists

(b) Technical staff:

(i) Production staff

(ii) Transmission staff

(iii) Other technical staff

(c) Administrative staff

(c) Other staff

Transmitting facilities

18. Total number of radio transmitters and their transmitting power expressed in carrier power or in maximum ERP for each of the under-mentioned categories:

(a) Low frequency (LF)

(b) Medium frequency (MF)

(c) High frequency (HF)

(d) Very high frequency (VHF)

(d) Super high frequency (SHF)

19. Total number of television transmitters and their transmitting power expressed in maximum ERP for each of the under-mentioned categories:

(a) Very high frequency (VHF)

(b) Ultra high frequency (UHF)

(c) Super high frequency (SHF)

Programmes

20. Number of programme services of broadcasting institutions referred to in paragraph 14(a)

(a) National programme services

(b) Regional programme services

(c) Local programme services

21 Total annual broadcasting time (in hours) of broadcasting institutions referred to in paragraph 14(a)

(a) By function, as percentage of total broadcasting time :

(i) Informative programmes: News bulletins and news commentaries (including sports news) Other informative programmes

(ii) Educational, cultural and religious programmes : Educational programmes : - Educational programmes related to a specific curriculum (excluding those for rural development purposes) - Educational programmes for rural development purposes - Other educational programmes Cultural programmes: Cultural programmes or activities Programmes about culture Religious programmes

(iii) Advertisements

(iv) Entertainment programmes and unclassified programmes Entertainment programmes - Cinema films - Plays - Music - Sport programmes (but excluding sports news) - Other entertainment programmes Unclassified programmes

(b) By language of programme, as percentage of total broadcasting time

(i) Official language(s)

(ii) Dialects of the official language(s)

(iii) Languages of ethnic minorities

(iv) Other languages

(c) By origin of programme, as percentage of total broadcasting time

(i) National production

(ii) Imported programmes

(iii) International co-productions

Listeners and viewers

22. (a) Potential audience

(b) Estimated number of receivers in use:

(i) Radio receivers: - Receivers with amplitude modulation only - Receivers also equipped for frequency modulation

(ii) Television receivers : Black and white receivers Colour receivers

(c) Number of receiving licences in force: Sound only (radio) Television Combined External broadcasting

23. Statistics on external radio broadcasting should include:

(a) Number of transmitters and their transmitting power

(b) Total annual broadcasting time (in hours) of all languages and by individual languages as a percentage of the total.


The foregoing is the authentic text of the recommendation duly adopted by the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization during its nineteenth session, which was held in Nairobi and declared closed the thirtieth day of November 1976.

IN FAITH WHEREOF we have appended our signatures.

The president of the General Conference
The Director-General

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Arabic http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001140/114038ab.pdf#page=160
Date of adoption 1976
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