Cultural Property in War: Improvement in Protection

Cultural Property in War: Improvement in Protection

    Commentary on the 1999 Second Protocol to the Hague Convention of 1954 for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict

    This detailed analysis of the Second Protocol to the Hague Convention of 1954 for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (1999) was written by Dr. Jiří Toman at the request of UNESCO. The study completes the author’s 1996 publication of the commentary on the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (the “Convention”) and its 1954 (First) Protocol.

    This commentary on the Second Protocol:

    • analyses provisions of the Second Protocol in relation to the corresponding Articles of the Convention since the two are closely intertwined;
    • provides insight into the travaux préparatoires of the March 1999 Hague Diplomatic Conference; and
    • addresses case-law developments of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia related to the destruction of cultural property, and relevant provisions of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.

    The work is intended for practitioners, scholars, diplomats, civil servants and students interested in the international legal protection of cultural property, both in peacetime and in the event of armed conflict. It also highlights UNESCO’s contribution to the work in this field.

    • Author(s): Jiří Toman, World Heritage series 
    • Publication Date: 04-01-2010