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The term basic education refers to all modalities and services, which intend to respond to the basic learning needs of people. These vary according to context and culture. They may be geared towards individuals or groups. The international community tends to refer to the definitions of the World Conference on Education for All 1990 in Jomtien, Thailand, the Delors Report (” Learning the treasures within”) and CONFINTEA V (Fifth International Conference on Adult Education, Hamburg 1997). They are partly reflected in the year 2000 Dakar Framework for Action on EFA.
(Read also Learning and Lifelong learning)
Refers to the social differences and relations between men and women, which are learned, vary widely among societies and cultures, and change over time. The term gender does not replace the term sex, which refers exclusively to biological differences between men and women. For example, statistical data are broken down by sex. The term gender is used to analyse the roles, responsibilities, constraints and needs of women and men in all areas and in any given social context. (ABC of Women Workers Rights and Gender Equality, ILO, Geneva, 2000, p. 47-48).
Equality between men and women, entails the concept that all human beings, both men and women, are free to develop their personal abilities and make choices without the limitations set by stereotypes, rigid gender roles and prejudices. Gender equality means that the different behaviours, aspirations and needs of women and men are considered, valued and favoured equally. It does not mean that women and men have to become the same, but that their rights, responsibilities and opportunities will not depend on whether they are born male or female. (ABC of Women Workers Rights and Gender Equality, ILO, Geneva, 2000, p. 48.)
Is a tool to diagnose the differences between women and men regarding their specific activities, conditions, needs, access to and control over resources, and access to development benefits and decision-making. It studies the linkages of these and other factors in the larger social, economic, political and environmental context. Gender analysis entails, first and foremost, collecting sex-disaggregated data and gender-sensitive information about the population concerned. Gender analysis is the first step in gender-sensitive planning for promoting gender equality. (ABC of Women Workers Rights and Gender Equality, ILO, Geneva, 2000, p. 47-48.)
ICTs can be defined as the set of tools and processes used to disseminate information, facilitate communication, skills acquisition, knowledge exchange and creation at various levels (local, regional, international). In this project the term refers to new technologies and all multimedia tools, as well as all types of “old” information/communication support (radio, pen and paper, music, etc).
In relation to societal development, the concept marks the transition from previous societal stages (agricultural society, industrial society) to a society characterised as follows:
1. the convergence of telecommunications and computer technology (wired society)
2. a non-physical commodity is the corner stone of the economy
3. the predominance of occupations is found in information work.
(Extracted and adapted from Webster, 1995: Theories of the Information Society, New York, Routledge)
The World Declaration on Education for All, adopted in 1990 says that basic learning needs “comprise both essential ‘learning tools’ (such as literacy, oral expression, numeracy, and problem solving) and the basic ‘learning content’ (such as knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes) required by human beings to be able to survive, to develop their full capacities, to live and work in dignity, to participate fully in development, to improve the quality of their lives, to make informed decisions, and to continue learning”.
This basic definition was further developed and supported by the Delors International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, which highlighted four ‘pillars’ or fundamental types of learning: learning to know, learning to do, learning to be and learning to live together. In this project two pillars are added: learning to transform oneself and society for positive change, and learning to learn.
Lifelong learning can be defined as all purposeful learning activity undertaken on an ongoing basis with the aim of improving knowledge, skills and competence. It contains various forms of education and training, formal, non-formal and informal, e.g. the traditional school system from primary to tertiary level, free adult education, informal search and training, individually, in a group setting or within the framework of social movements. (See CONFINTEA V, Fifth International Conference on Adult Education, Hamburg 1997)
"In the rapidly changing world of today’s knowledge society, with the progressive use of newer and innovative technological means of communication, literacy requirements continue to expand regularly. In order to survive in today’s globalized world, it has become necessary for all people to learn new literacies and develop the ability to locate, evaluate and effectively use information in multiple manners. As recalled in paragraph 8 of the draft proposal and plan for a United Nations literacy decade, “Literacy policies and programmes today require going beyond the limited view of literacy that has dominated in the past. Literacy for all requires a renewed vision of literacy…”
Literacy for All encompasses the educational needs of the human beings in all settings and contexts, in the North and the South, the urban and the rural, those in school and those out-of-school, adults and children, boys and girls, and men and women.
Literacy for All has to address the literacy needs of the individual as well as the family, literacy in the workplace and in the community, as well as in society, in tune with the goals of economic, social and cultural development of all people in all countries. Literacy for All will be effectively achieved only when it is planned and implemented in local contexts of language and culture, ensuring gender equity and equality, fulfilling learning aspirations of local communities and groups of people. Literacy must be related to various dimensions of personal and social life, as well as to development.
(Extracted from the International Plan of Action: Document of the 56th UN General Assembly)
Local and indigenous knowledge systems (LINKS)
LINKS are a system of understanding, interpretation and meaning that are embedded in communities and that provide the basis for local level decision-making about fundamental aspects of day-to-day life.